HOLOFERNES°, chief captain of the Assyrian army, who besieged a Jewish city and was beguiled and beheaded by judith (13: 7–9). In the apocryphal Book of Judith, Olofernes (a variant form, as is Orofernes) is the general of Nabuchodnosor (Nebuchadnezzar) attacking Bethulia. The Persian form of the name – akin to Datafernes, Artafernes, and others (the fernes connotes "brilliance") – and the presence of a Holofernes associated with Artaxerxes Ochus (Diodorus Siculus 31:19) lead some scholars to conclude that the story reflects events of the period of the Persian Empire. There is no consensus as to a specific date. Others see a reflection of events of the Hasmonean period, since there is a Holofernes whom Demetrius I helped to become king of Cappadocia in 158 B.C.E. (Diodorus Siculus ibid.), and other versions of the story refer to Holofernes as king of Greece or the general of a Greek army besieging Jerusalem. Tradition also associates the story with Ḥanukkah and the Hasmonean era. The setting, name, and position of Judith's victim change from one version to another, but the story line remains constant. This seems to indicate that, if Holofernes was originally a historical figure, the details about this figure were forgotten and he became a fictional prototype of the persecutor of Jews who meets a just end. Although Judith was apparently very religious and practiced prayer and self-denial, her act did not suit her piety, since she murdered a defenseless man and then treated Holofernes' decapitated head with disrespect by carrying it off as a trophy. Therefore, some scholars have suggested that this is one of the reasons why the book of Judith was not included in the canon. For Holofernes in the Arts see judith in the Arts. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: J.M. Grintz, Sefer Yehudit (1957), 15–17, 184; A.M. Oubarle, in: RB, 66 (1959), 514–49; idem, Judith, formes et sens des diverses traditions (1966). ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: C.A. Moore,   "Judith: The Case of the Pious Killer," in: Bible Review, 6 (1990), 26–36. (Jacob Petroff / Shimon Gibson (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Holofernes — (Hebrew, הולופרנס) was an Assyrian [ [http://www.sptimes.ru/index.php?action id=2 story id=17479 Proof of Race] ] invading general of Nebuchadnezzar, who appears in the deuterocanonical Book of Judith . It was said that the Babylonian king… …   Wikipedia

  • Holofernes — Holofernes, 1) Feldherr Nebukadnezars, wurde bei der Belagerung Bethulias von Judith ermordet, s.u. Judith; 2) Name einiger Fürsten von Kappadokien, s.d. (Gesch.) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Holoférnes — Holoférnes, nach dem apokryphischen Buch Judith Feldherr Nebukadnezars, wurde bei der Belagerung Bethulias von Judith (s. d.) ermordet. Den aus dem Persischen stammenden Namen (»nach Wunsch Glück habend«), der auch Orophernes und Olophernes… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Holoférnes — Holoférnes, nach dem apokryphischen Buch Judith Feldherr des Assyrerkönigs Nebukadnezar, bei der Belagerung Bethulias von Judith ermordet …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Holofernes — Holofernes, s. Judith …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • HOLOFERNES — Princeps militiae Regis Nabuchodonosor, Iudith. c. 2. v. 4. etc. Vide Frid. Spanhem. de auct. libror Apocryphor …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Holofernes — [häl΄ə fʉr′nēz΄] n. Apocrypha a general of Nebuchadnezzar s army, killed by Judith: see JUDITH …   English World dictionary

  • Holofernes — Judith köpft Holofernes von Artemisia Gentileschi, entstanden von 1614 bis 1620 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Holofernes — Judith decapitando a Holofernes, de Artemisia Gentileschi, en la Galleria degli Uffizi, Florencia. Holofernes (en hebreo, הולופרנס) fue un general asirio a las órdenes de Nabucodonosor. Aparece en los libros Deuterocanónicos, concretamente en el… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Holofernes (disambiguation) — Holofernes was an Assyrian invading general of Nebuchadnezzar, who appears in the deuterocanonical Book of Judith .Holofernes may also refer to:* Holofernes (character), a schoolmaster in Love s Labour s Lost * Judith Holofernes (born 1976),… …   Wikipedia

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